Nootropics are substances that enhance cognitive performance by improving brain function.

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What are nootropics?

Nootropics are substances that enhance cognitive performance by improving brain function.

The term nootropics is derived from the Greek words “noos” and “tropos,” meaning “spirit” and “way” or “direction,” respectively.

Nootropics are divided into two different groups: Synthetic, laboratory-produced compounds and purely natural substances.

Attention, memory, and creativity are the three main cognitive areas that contribute to a person’s mental performance.

Nootropics can improve all of these cognitive functions. Attention is the ability to focus on a specific task; memory is the ability to store and recall information; creativity is the ability to develop new ideas.

There is a growing body of evidence supporting the use of nootropics to improve cognitive performance. For example, one study found that piracetam, a synthetic nootropic, improved memory in healthy elderly people.

In another study, Bacopa monnieri, a natural nootropic, was found to improve memory and attention in healthy young adults. These studies suggest that nootropics may be effective in improving cognitive function in both healthy older people and young adults.


What defines nootropics?

Mind-expanding substances have been used in the Chinese and Indian (Ayurveda) healing arts for hundreds of years.

The term “nootropic” was coined in 1972 by the Romanian scientist Dr. Corneliu Giurgea.

Giurgea was responsible for the creation of the drug “Piracetam”, a man-made nootropic, first synthesized in 1964, and today is one of the best known nootropics.

He derived the term from the Greek words nous (spirit) and tropus (turn),.

Dr. Giurgea developed the following characteristics by which a substance is classified in the group of notropics:

  • The substance improves memory and learning ability.
  • The substance helps the brain cope with stressful situations, such as hypoxia (lack of oxygen).
  • Protects the brain from psychological and physical attacks, e.g. against drugs that cause mental disorders or barbiturates (sedative, sleep-inducing drugs).
  • Increased brain activity in the cerebral cortex region.
  • The substance does not cause any anesthetic or stimulant effects ****. It has **** few, to no side effects, and is virtually non-toxic.

How do nootropics work?

Nootropics, also known as “smart drugs,” are designed to improve cognitive function. They act on the central nervous system and have the potential to increase energy levels, focus and concentration. Nootropics can influence neurotrasnmitter production, ATP production or oxygen supply.

Some nootropics are available as dietary supplements, while others are included in prescription medications. While there is some evidence to support the use of nootropics, further research is needed to confirm their effectiveness.

When used properly, nootropics can increase brain power and improve well-being. However, it is important to talk to a doctor before taking supplements, as they may interact with other medications and drugs or cause adverse reactions.

What are the nootropics?

Nootropics are substances taken to enhance cognitive function. The term was coined, as already mentioned, in the early 1970s by the Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr Corneliu Giurgea, who synthesized the first nootropic substance called Piracetam.

Since then, many other nootropics have been discovered, both synthetic and natural.

Nootropics fall into three broad categories:

  1. Plants and herbs (natural plant substances)
  2. Racetams (synthetic compounds structurally similar to piracetam).
  3. Specific vitamins and macronutrients (such as omega-3 fatty acids).

Effect of nootropics

Each type of nootropic has its own unique mechanisms of action and its own effect on our brain.

For example, plants and herbs such as Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monnieri have been shown to improve memory and cognitive function, while racetams such as Aniracetam and Oxiracetam have been shown to increase task flexibility and overall cognitive processing speed.

The best known nootropics include vitamins such as vitamin B12, phytochemicals such as bacopa, and nutrients such as choline, vinpocetine, and huperzine A. All of these drugs have also been shown to be effective nootropics and have great potential.

Overall, there is a very wide range of nootropics, all of which have their own benefits for the nervous system and, for example, blood flow to the brain. New agents are constantly being discovered and studied by neuroscientists for their effects in the central nervous system.

Natural plant extracts

Ginkgo Biloba

Gingko Biloba is a tree native to China. It is the only living species in the Gingkoaceae family and is considered a “living fossil”, having existed for more than 200 million years.

The tree is distinguished by its fan-shaped leaves and fruits that resemble a miniature apricot.

The Gingko Biloba tree can grow up to 30 m high and live for more than 1,000 years. The tree has been used in medicine for centuries and is said to have a variety of health benefits.

Today, ginkgo biloba extract is commonly sold as a dietary supplement and taken by people to improve memory, increase energy levels, and protect against Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive impairments.

In addition to its use as a dietary supplement, ginkgo biloba extract is sometimes used in topical skin care products to improve circulation and reduce inflammation.


The name Ashwagandha comes from Sanskrit and means “horse” and “smell”, referring to the strong-smelling roots of the plant.

Ashwagandha is most commonly used as a stress reliever and has been shown to be effective in reducing anxiety.

Ashwagandha has also been shown to increase cognitive function and improve memory. Sometimes it is also used as a natural remedy for lack of energy and fatigue.

Although ashwagandha is generally considered safe, it can cause some reactions such as stomach upset, diarrhea, and headaches. Ashwagandha should be used with caution if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.


Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic tradition. It is revered as a sacred plant in Hinduism and is often planted in front of temples and houses.

Tulsi has long been used to treat a variety of health conditions, including respiratory illnesses, fevers, stomach ulcers, and stress.

Modern research has shown that tulsi contains compounds with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Tulsi has also been shown to improve cognitive function and protect against age-related mental decline.

These properties make tulsi an important herb for both general wellness and specific treatment protocols.

Gotu Kola

Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) is a small, herbaceous plant native to parts of Asia, Africa and India.

The leaves of the plant are traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for a variety of ailments including wounds, skin infections, and anxiety.

In recent years, gotu kola has gained popularity as a super food due to its purported health benefits. Some research suggests that gotu kola may improve circulation and promote healing.

It is also said to promote cognitive function and protect against age-related mental decline.

Gotu kola is generally considered safe when taken orally in recommended doses. However, more research is needed to confirm its effects.

Rose root – Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola Rosea, better known as rose root, is a perennial plant that grows in cold, mountainous regions of Europe and Asia. The roots and rhizomes of the plant are used for the preparation of various herbal remedies.

Rose root has a long tradition in traditional medicine, dating back to the first century AD. It has traditionally been used for fatigue, depression, anxiety and other nervous system disorders.

Even today, rose root is sometimes used as an herbal remedy for the same ailments. Sometimes it is also used as a general tonic to improve energy levels and endurance.

While there is some scientific evidence supporting the use of rose root for certain ailments, further research is needed to confirm the potential of these phytochemicals.


Shiasandra is an evergreen plant native to the Himalayan region.

Shiasandra is also known as a nootropic. The active ingredient serine contained in Shiasandra is said to protect the brain from damage and improve memory and learning ability.

A number of studies have shown that serine can actually improve cognitive function in both healthy adults and people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Shiasandra is definitely a popular if quite unknown nootropic for those who want to improve their cognitive performance.

Brahmi – Bacopa Monnieri

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) is an Ayurvedic herb used to support cognitive function.

Brahmi is a creeping herb that grows in wetlands and marshy areas. The leaves are small and juicy, and the flowers are white or pink.

Brahmi originated in India, but is now found in tropical regions around the world. It is often taken in the form of powder, capsules or tinctures. The herb is sometimes combined with other cognition-enhancing herbs such as ginkgo biloba or gotu kola.

Clinical studies have shown that this plant substance can support memory, learning and concentration. It is believed that the herb works by increasing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and serotonin. Brahmi is generally considered safe when taken in recommended doses.

Some people may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea or diarrhea. High doses of brahmi may cause headache, rash and hives.

Bacopa should not be taken by pregnant or breastfeeding women. The herb should also be used with caution in people with bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning pills.


Huperzine A is a naturally occurring alkaloid compound derived from the plant Huperzia serrata.

It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, meaning it inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine in the brain. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter involved in memory and learning, and by inhibiting its breakdown, huperzine A may help improve cognitive function.

Huperzine A has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and other age-related cognitive disorders. It is also being studied as a possible remedy for other conditions such as ADHD, depression, and schizophrenia.

Although huperzine A appears to be safe and well tolerated, further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in humans.


L-theanine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in tea leaves. It is also found in some mushrooms and is available as a supplement. L-Theanine has been shown to have a number of benefits. For example, anxiety is reduced and cognitive performance is improved. Some studies also suggest that L-theanine may improve the quality of sleep. It is used as brain doping and is said to improve focus, productivity and overall brain function.

L-theanine is thought to work by increasing levels of GABA, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating anxiety. It can also promote the release of dopamine and serotonin, which are involved in mood regulation. In addition, L-theanine may help protect the brain from stress-related damage.

L-Theanine is naturally found in green tea, and combines excellently with coffee to realize the full potential of these unique active ingredients.


5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a nootropic compound sold as a supplement.

5-HTP is the immediate precursor of serotonin, and is thought to increase serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood, appetite and sleep.

In some studies, 5-HTP supplementation has been shown to improve mood and reduce anxiety. 5-HTP may also help suppress appetite and promote weight loss. 5-HTP can be used for insomnia and other sleep disorders.

5-HTP appears to be safe and well tolerated in most people, but may cause gastrointestinal discomfort such as nausea and vomiting. The active substance should not be taken together with SSRIs or MAOIs. Talk to your doctor before taking 5-HTP.

Hedgehog Spiny Beard

The current nootropic landscape is full of compounds that promise to improve cognitive function, but few of them have been scientifically proven to date.

Another remedy that is used as brain doping and is supposed to improve brain functions is the mushroom hedgehog spiny beard.

Hedgehog spiny beard is a natural nootropic that has shown promise in clinical trials. This extract comes from the fruiting bodies of certain vital mushrooms and is rich in antioxidants and polysaccharides.

One study showed that it could improve cognitive function in a group of healthy adults. Participants who had taken the hedgehog spiny beard extract performed better on memory, executive function and attention tests than those who had not taken the supplement.

These results suggest that hedgehog spiny beard may be an effective nootropic for healthy adults.


Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone that helps regulate the body’s sleep-wake cycle.

It is usually produced by the pineal gland in response to darkness and plays a central role in the body’s circadian rhythms.

Taking melatonin is an effective remedy for a number of sleep disorders, including insomnia and jet lag.



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In addition, research suggests that melatonin may also have cognitive benefits. Taking melatonin can improve memory and learning ability in healthy older adults. Another study found that melatonin improved symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and may support the ability to concentrate.

Overall, the present evidence suggests that melatonin may be an effective nootropic supplement to improve sleep and cognition. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects.

However, melatonin should be used with caution and rather conservatively. A consultation with a physician should be made in any case before melatonin is used.

Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is a naturally occurring compound that has been shown to have a variety of potential health benefits and can, for example, improve productivity and focus performance.

ALCAR is synthesized in the liver and transported to other tissues where it plays an important role in energy production. ALCAR supplementation has been shown to increase carnitine levels in the body, which can lead to improved energy production and reduced fatigue.

ALCAR protects against age-related damage to brain cells, making it a promising therapy for age-related cognitive decline.

In addition, ALCAR has been shown to enhance athletic performance and shorten recovery time after exercise-induced muscle damage.

Overall, ALCAR appears to be a safe and effective supplement with a wide range of potential health benefits.


Acetyl-L-tyrosine (ALT) is a nootropic amino acid that has been shown to improve cognitive function in a variety of situations. It is believed to work by increasing catecholamine levels, including dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. As a brain doping agent that can affect the central nervous system and thus brain performance, it is a relatively unknown nootropic.

These neurotransmitters are involved in the regulation of mood, attention, and other cognitive processes. ALT has been shown to improve memory and reaction time in healthy adults and reduce fatigue during prolonged mental tasks. It consequently counteracts states of exhaustion.

It can also help relieve symptoms of stress and anxiety and lifts the ability to concentrate. Although more research is needed to confirm these effects, ALT appears to be a promising nootropic for those seeking to improve cognitive function.



Choline is an essential nutrient involved in many body functions, including cell membrane structure, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis.

Although the body can produce small amounts of choline itself, this is not enough to meet the body’s needs. Therefore, choline must be taken in through the diet.

Rich sources of choline include eggs, beef liver and soybeans. Choline deficiency can lead to a condition called fatty liver, as well as memory disorders and neurological deficits.

Taking choline has been shown to improve cognitive function in people with memory impairment and may also protect against age-related cognitive decline.

CDP Choline (Citicoline)

CDP-choline (also known as citicoline) is a naturally occurring compound that provides a number of cognitive benefits. It improves memory and attention and may also help protect the brain from age-related damage.

CDP-Choline works by increasing the concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is critical for healthy brain function. In addition, CDP-choline helps support cell membrane structure and maintain healthy levels of the essential nutrient phosphorus in the brain.

For these reasons, taking CDP-Cholin is an effective way to enhance cognitive performance and protect the brain from age-related decline.


Alpha-GPC (L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a natural choline compound found in the brain that acts on the central nervous system. It is considered a bioactive form of choline and is involved in several cognitive processes, including memory formation and neurotransmission.

Alpha-GPC has been shown to increase acetylcholine levels, an important neurotransmitter for learning and memory. Taking alpha-GPC may improve cognitive performance in healthy adults and older people with mild cognitive impairment. Alpha-GPC has also been shown to be effective in alleviating Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. In short, it improves memory and mental performance.

Alpha-GPC a safe and effective method to improve cognitive function and for therapy of age-related cognitive decline.

Chemically produced active ingredients


Noopept is a nootropic substance that may have cognition-enhancing effects. It is thought to increase the concentration of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and glutamate, which play a key role in memory and learning.

Noopept is also known to promote neuroplasticity, the brain’s ability to adapt and change in response to new stimuli.

Noopept has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties that may help protect the brain from age-related damage. Although more research is needed to confirm these effects, Noopept is a promising treatment for cognitive decline.


Piracetam has been shown to improve memory and cognitive abilities in human clinical trials. It is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter GABA and modulates several important neurotransmitter systems involved in cognition, including cholinergic, glutamatergic, and dopamine systems.

Piracetam also increases cerebral blood flow and raises levels of the neurotrophic factor BDNF.

These effects are likely the basis for its ability to improve memory and cognitive function.

Piracetam is well tolerated and does not appear to have any serious side effects. It is available over the counter in many countries and can be purchased online.


One of the best known nootropics is phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil) a potent nootropic drug that belongs to the racetame family. It is known to improve cognitive function, memory the nervous system in general and concentration.

Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to increase physical endurance and protect the brain from damage caused by hypoxia (lack of oxygen).

Phenylpiracetam is not currently approved in the United States, but it is available in Russia and some other countries. Anecdotal reports suggest that phenylpiracetam may be beneficial for people with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ADHD, and other conditions.

Special vitamins and macronutrients

Vitamin B complex

The human brain is a complex organ whose function depends on a variety of nutrients. One group of nutrients that is essential for healthy brain function is vitamin B complex.

This group of vitamins includes B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folate), and B12 (cobalamin) all potent nootropics that can increase performance.

Each of these vitamins plays a specific role in brain function, and a deficiency in any of them can lead to problems. For example, thiamine deficiency can lead to cognitive impairment, while niacin deficiency can cause psychosis.

Brain performance, memory performance and general performance both mental performance and physical can be improved by this “brain doping means”.


Sulbutiamine is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It was developed in Japan in the 1960s and has since been studied for its potential utility as a nootropic agent.

Sulbutiamine promotes cognitive function by improving neuronal communication and cerebral blood flow.

Furthermore, sulbutiamine has shown promise in reducing fatigue and improving memory and attention.

While more research is needed to confirm these effects, sulbutiamine may provide a safe and effective method for improving cognitive function.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is best known for its role in promoting bone health, but this essential nutrient also provides a number of cognitive benefits.

Numerous studies have shown that vitamin D can improve memory and executive function, and it may also help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

Vitamin D helps regulate the release of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. It also helps protect the brain from damage by reducing inflammation and improving blood flow.

Fatty acids

Omega 3

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of unsaturated fat that is essential for human health. These fats are found in fish, nuts and seeds and are also available in supplement form.

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for brain health. They improve cognitive function and reduce inflammation. The effects on inflammation and the body are not negligible and we can confidently call these fats smart drugs or nootropics.

Taking omega-3 supplements in healthy adults can improve memory and reaction time.

In one study, omega-3s were found to improve task flexibility and inhibition control in healthy young adults. These studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids can improve cognitive function in healthy people.

While more research is needed to confirm the effects on cognitive function, the available evidence suggests that these fats may play a role in promoting brain health.

Omega-3 supplements are generally safe and well-tolerated, making them a promising option for those looking to improve cognitive performance.

Caprylic acid

Caprylic acid is a saturated fatty acid that has a variety of benefits for the human body. It occurs naturally in coconut oil and palm kernel oil and has been shown to have antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Caprylic acid is also known as a nootropic, which means it can help improve cognitive function. Studies have shown that caprylic acid can improve memory and attention span, as well as reduce anxiety and depression. In addition, caprylic acid has been shown to improve energy levels and mood. Overall, caprylic acid is an incredibly versatile nutrient that can provide a wide range of mental and physical health benefits.

What are stimulant nootropics?

Stimulants are substances that can increase the concentration of individual neurotransmitters and their activity. Thus, they can provide a short-term performance boost that has a positive effect on performance at work or in sports. Although this may be useful in some situations, it is important to note that stimulants do not improve cognitive function in the long term. Rather, they can interfere with the brain’s natural process of producing and using neurotransmitters. Therefore, stimulants are not considered true nootropics. Nevertheless, they can be helpful in some situations when a short-term performance boost is desired.



Modafinil is a growth-promoting drug used to treat disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil is not a central nervous system stimulant like amphetamines, but it does act on the brain to increase alertness and wakefulness. The exact mechanism of action is not known, but it is thought to interact with the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Modafinil is available in tablet form and is usually taken once daily. It can be taken with or without food, but should be taken at the same time each day to maintain an even level of medication in the blood. Common side effects include headache, nausea, and dizziness. Modafinil should not be taken by people with a history of heart disease or stroke.


Caffeine is a stimulant that occurs naturally in many plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves and cocoa beans. It is also added to some foods and beverages, such as cola, energy pills and energy drinks.

Caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on the body. For example, it can increase mental alertness and physical and mental performance because caffeine can cross the blood brain barrier, it stimulates the brain directly. However, it can also cause side effects such as anxiety, nervousness and headaches.

In addition, caffeine is addictive, meaning people who consume it regularly can develop a tolerance and experience withdrawal symptoms if they limit or stop consumption altogether. Therefore, it is important to consume caffeinated foods and beverages in moderation. In small amounts, caffeine can be a harmless way to increase alertness and energy levels. However, excessive consumption can lead to serious side effects. That’s why it’s important to listen to your body and consume caffeine in moderation.


Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a climbing plant native to the Amazon Basin that bears bright red fruit. The fruits are about the size of a coffee bean and contain a high caffeine content. Guarana has been used by indigenous peoples for centuries as a medicinal plant and as a source of energy.

The name “guarana” comes from the Tupi Guarani word for “fruit like the eyes of the people” and refers to the dark seeds that are visible through the translucent flesh. Today, guarana is widely used in Brazil in soft drinks, energy drinks and other foods. Guarana is also becoming increasingly popular in other countries as a natural alternative to caffeinated foods and beverages.


Deprenyl is a medication used to treat patients with depression. It is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and works by crossing the blood brain barrier and increasing serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain. Deprenyl is usually used as a second-line treatment for depression after other drugs have failed.

Common side effects of deprenyl include headache, fatigue, dry mouth, and constipation. Deprenyl should not be taken with other MAOIs or antidepressants. It is also not recommended for use in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Prescription!

Ritalin and Adderal

Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderal (amphetamine) are two commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs work by increasing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can improve attention and concentration. Ritalin is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, while Adderal is available only in an immediate-release form. The most common side effects of Ritalin include nausea, headache, and dizziness, while the most common side effects of Adderal include loss of appetite, weight loss, and dry mouth. Both drugs can also be abused and lead to addiction if used for nonmedical purposes. Therefore, it is important to take these medications only as prescribed by a doctor.

Green tea

Green tea has long been valued for its health benefits, and recent research suggests that it also has cognitive benefits. Green tea contains a number of compounds that have been shown to have neurological benefits. For example, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to protect the brain from damage and improve memory and learning ability. In addition, L-theanine is an amino acid that promotes relaxation and lowers stress levels. Together, these compounds may help improve brain function and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Vital mushrooms for more thinking ability

In addition to the adaptogenic plants already mentioned, there are also various types of mushrooms that also have an adaptogenic effect and stimulate cognitive functions. These are for example Cordyceps, Maitake, Reishi, Agaricus or Shitake. Like most adaptogens, they are used in traditional healing methods such as TCM and have a long history in herbal medicine. The vital mushroom Hericium Erinaceus (Lions Mane) is particularly interesting for brain performance, because it is said to improve learning ability and memory. Research has shown that regular consumption of Hericium can lead to an increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. NGF is a protein that is important for the growth, maintenance and regeneration of nerve cells. In addition, the medicinal mushroom Reishi can support the formation of new nerve cells and thus counteracts age-related cognitive decline. Another study showed that Reishi can improve performance on a memory test after only four weeks of consumption. The study participants were able to remember more words and had better reaction times than those who did not take the mushroom extract. These studies suggest that reishi may actually improve cognitive functions such as learning ability and memory.


Nootropics are medications or dietary supplements that, by definition, can improve cognitive function, including memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Although sedatives are sometimes placed in this category, they do not meet the criteria established by the two scientists Giurgea and Skondia.

Nootropics must meet five specific criteria: They must enhance learning and memory, be nontoxic, protect the brain from physical or chemical damage, increase mental energy, and increase resistance to neurological disease. Sedatives may have some cognitive benefit but do not meet all the criteria to be classified as a nootropic.

Are nootropics harmful and what are the side effects?

While there is some evidence to support the use of certain nootropics to improve cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, there are also concerns that these substances may be harmful, especially when used without medical supervision. Possible side effects of nootropics include anxiety, insomnia, digestive problems, and headaches. There is also a lack of long-term data on the safety and efficacy of nootropics, making it difficult to determine whether they are truly safe and effective. Therefore, it is important to talk to a doctor before taking nootropics, especially if you have a history of mental health problems.

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