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What you need to know about magnesium

Based on the scientific studies of the European Food Safety Organization (EFSA) , magnesium is of great importance for a healthy life.

Magnesium contributes to the maintenance of water and mineral balance in our body and also has a positive influence on the functions of the nervous system. Magnesium is conducive to memory, concentration and learning (EFSA, 2016) and also plays a role in athletic performance and neurological control. It is important for the maintenance and growth of bones and also plays a role in cell division. Magnesium helps in the metabolism of proteins and has a positive effect on cellular energy production.

Magnesium is essential and of high value for the human body. More than 300 bodily functions are directly influenced by magnesium.

Organic and inorganic forms of magnesium

In general, the bioavailability of the organic forms of magnesium is higher and therefore better than that of the inorganic forms. Different forms of magnesium utilize different channels, so a varied use of different compounds is beneficial and necessary to reap the full benefits of magnesium.

Most forms of magnesium, whether organic or inorganic, have their respective benefits and can be used to induce specific effects in the human body.


Chelated forms of magnesium are very valuable due to higher bioavailability and binding molecule cofactors (glycine, malate, threonic acid, etc.).

Chelation is the joining of organic compounds with inorganic compounds to improve the body’s rate of absorption and nutrient uptake.

In our case, chelation is the binding process that combines magnesium with an organic compound to improve stability and bioavailability.

This results in better utilization of nutrients and more efficient transport of minerals through the intestinal wall.

magnesium citrate

(energy, relaxation, bowel movements)

Magnesium citrate is an organically bound form of magnesium. This naturally occurring form has the advantage of having good bioavailability, making it easy to absorb. Inorganic forms such as magnesium oxide, on the other hand, are poorly absorbed and should mostly be used as a laxative. Research has shown that magnesium citrate supplementation increases magnesium concentrations in all tissues, including muscles, but not specifically in the brain ( Ates, 2019 ). Magnesium citrate is excellent for supporting muscles and generally helping to maintain healthy levels of magnesium in all tissues.

In addition, the bonds between magnesium and amino acids are stronger and more stable, so they stay intact longer in the body.

Magnesium Bisglycinate

(sleep and rest)

Glycine is one of the most suitable amino acids to combine with magnesium. It is small in size and has pH lowering properties. A bond between two glycine molecules and a magnesium salt molecule is called magnesium bisglycinate.

The uptake of different minerals can lead to mineral competition, ie several minerals share the same uptake transporter and therefore compete with each other for uptake slots. Binding magnesium to an amino acid can reduce competition for mineral uptake and increase the chances that it will be absorbed via the amino acid transporter. Bisglycinates are not considered minerals by the body but amino acids (Ates et al., 2019). In this way, mineral competition can fortunately be avoided. Two other advantages of bigylcinates are that the body absorbs more amino acids than minerals and that the absorption rate of glycinates is particularly high due to their small size ( Schuette, 1994 & Hartle, 2016 ).

Magnesium bisglycinate also behaves differently than other organic magnesium compounds at other levels. Magnesium bisglycinate does not bind to other nutrients. It is therefore likely to be one of the most absorbable forms of magnesium.

Studies have shown that after administration of magnesium bisglycinate, magnesium levels increased in serum and brain, but not in muscles ( Ates, 2019 ).

Magnesium bisglycinate is proven to be safe and has fewer side effects such as diarrhea, which can be directly related to its high absorption rate and bioavailability.

magnesium malate

(energy and power)

The combination of magnesium with malic acid helps create a substance called adenosine triphosphate, also known as ATP. ATP is the single most universal and immediate energy carrier in our cells. Due to its high bioavailability, magnesium malate is well absorbed and utilized in the human metabolism. Malic acid plays an important role in the citric acid cycle, the energy production cycle of our cells.

Applications for magnesium malate

Magnesium malate is used for chronic lack of energy or exhaustion. Due to its essential role in ATP production, it is well suited for athletes with high training volumes.

Mag Malate is not suitable for improving sleep in people without fatigue or fatigue syndrome. When taken in the evening, normal people stay awake. Its energy-generating properties are quite powerful, but obviously they can vary from person to person. Very high doses of Mag Malate can help improve sleep.

magnesium oxide

(laxatives and constipation)

Unfortunately still one of the most common forms of magnesium in terms of dietary supplements.

It is an inorganic compound that is almost insoluble and therefore poorly absorbed. The bioavailability is so low that it is used clinically as a laxative. It can even negatively affect the mineral balance in the body ( Bohn, 2003 & Kappeler, 2016 ). For these reasons, we advise against using magnesium oxide. So the next time you buy a dietary supplement, check to see if there is magnesium oxide in the product.

magnesium aspartate

(muscle function, recovery and relaxation)

Aspartate is the salt of aspartic acid – a non-essential amino acid. Aspargine, or aspartic acid, has been and is used by bodybuilders and strength athletes to improve muscle recovery and performance.


In general, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins in the body. In particular, aspartic acid is important for building the purine and pyrimidine bases necessary for DNA metabolism. The supply of sufficient amounts of amino acids is particularly important for all athletes.

Mag-aspartate has a calming and relaxing effect on the muscles and above all helps with regeneration.


Mag Aspartate can increase athletic performance by regenerating muscle tissue and aiding in recovery.

It also lowers chronic inflammation (rheumatism, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, etc.)

and can help normalize heart rhythm and heart irregularities.

Magnesium Orotate

(muscle function, heart rhythm)

Magnesium orotate is used to treat leg cramps, magnesium deficiency, and as a general sedative. It has good bioavailability and is said to help with heart rhythm. It is the magnesium salt of orotic acid.

Magnesium orotate is said to have a muscle-relaxing and heart-protecting effect. It is commonly used to treat leg cramps, magnesium deficiency, and as a general sedative. It also acts as a mineral transporter and orotic acid improves the bioavailability of the bound minerals.

  • Calf cramps, muscle cramps
  • magnesium deficiency
  • As a general sedative

magnesium taurate

(sleep improvement, heart rhythm stabilization, mineral transport)

Magnesium taurate is bound to the amino acid taurine. Taurine is found in high levels in muscle tissue, brain and eye tissue. Magnesium taurate contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue, normal protein synthesis and normal muscle function.

Taurine regulates calcium influx and membrane binding, thereby affecting mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. It acts as a neuromodulator in the nervous system. As an osmoregulator, it also aids in the movement of sodium and potassium across cell membranes, particularly in muscle cells.

Taurine is involved in the development of the central nervous system and the heart; in the heart it also ensures a regular heartbeat (antiarrhythmic effect).

Magnesium L-Threonate

(Brain function, cognition, sleep improvement, brain recovery)

Magnesium L-Threonate is a chelated form of magnesium and threonic acid.

Magnesium L-Threonate is the newest magnesium chelate.

It was developed by a team of neuroscientists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Tsinghua University in Beijing, who attached magnesium to L-threonate, a vitamin C metabolite.

Magnesium L-Threonate can cross the brain’s protective filter, the blood-brain barrier, to get into the brain where it’s needed. The magnesium level in the brain is increased.

Magnesium L-Threonate is a nootropic that can improve cognitive ability and memory and increase neuronal growth in the brain.

It has a gaba-inducing effect that contributes to relaxation and sleep.

magnesium sulfate

(Topical application Epsom salt bath, laxative, antispasmodic in pregnant women)

Magnesium sulfate is also known as Epsom salt and is commonly used in Epsom salt baths. After ingestion, it is poorly absorbed in the intestine. Intravenous administration is sometimes used to relieve spasms, especially in pregnant women.

Mag sulfate is very soluble in water and is therefore used as a bath salt. Athletes use it after strenuous exercise to replenish muscles through a hot Epsom salt bath.

Mag sulfate is an inorganic form and is therefore poorly absorbed by the human body.